Ghana has recently made efforts to double its coffee production to 3, 000 metric tons and expand area of lands planted in coffee to nearly 5,000 acres.
Although Ghana is the world’s second largest Cocoa producer, it has increased entering into the coffee market and is relatively small in coffee production makes it the third smallest coffee producer in sub – Sahara Africa. In 1997-1998 harvest season Ghana exported 10, 000 metric tons but then exports declined due to various causes including a poor pricing policy as well also decline world coffee market prices.
DEFINITON OF COFFEE:
Coffee is a brewed drink prepared from roasted coffee beans, which are the seeds of berries from the Coffee plant.
TYPES OF COFFEE BEANS GROWN IN GHANA.
Both Arabica and Coffee Robusta are grown in Ghana but Coffee Robusta is common in Ghana.
HISTORY OF COFFEE IN GHANA
Coffee was first introduced into Ghana by the early missionaries in the mid-eighteenth century. It is mostly cultivated by small holders and in the few plantations scattered in the coffee zone. In the 1980s, the Government established 19 coffee plantations which were later divested into private participation.. The species are grown mainly by small scale farmers in the following regions and its communities;
- Volta – Kete Krachi.
- Eastern – Wenchi ,
- Ashanti – Offinso, Mampong Ashanti.
- Central – Cape Coast
- Brong Ahafo – Techiman , Nkoranza.
- Western – Tarkoradi
WHY GHANA INVEST IN COFFE PLANT
This is because it is a universal drink with considerable economic impact. In terms of value, It has the most traded agriculture product in the world and also the second raw material in value after oil.
CONDITIONS THAT FAVOUR FARMING IN GHANA
- Good temperature ( Averagely 15 – 30 degrees conscious)
- Rainfall ( Areas with less rainfall)
- Soil (fertile deep volcanic soil)
- Topography ( Undulating lands scope with hill slopes and gentile slope)
- Altitude ( High altitude raining between 610 m and 1830m)
- Transport ( Good road for transportation)
- Labour ( Labour intensive, the high population in the growing areas)
HOW COFFEE IS GROWN AND HARVESTED IN GHANA
Coffee plants are planted in nursery suitable watered and shaded where they germinate and stay for about sixty months transplanting and then after fifty years the plant becomes pruned weeded, sprayed and manure regularly by the third to the fifty years the plant attains maturity and beans are harvested. Harvesting include manual picking of the red berries leaving the green berries to ripe.
PETS AMD DISEASES OF GHANA COFFEIE
- Borer beetle Avoid left over coffee fruit on the field between harvest
- Black Twig Borer Ensure proper pruning
- Nematodes Seedling engrafted should be used
- Bacterial blight
- Coffee Rust
- Coffee plant Berry
GHANA EXPECTATION IN FUTURE
To reach 175 million bags of coffee in which therefore Ghana needs to produce an extra 35 million bags which will be of Robusta coffee.